Stoacı Duygu Kuramının Ontolojik Ve Epistemik Temelleri, No: 14 - 12/2018
Başlık
:
Stoacı Duygu Kuramının Ontolojik Ve Epistemik Temelleri
Yazar(lar)
:
Aslı YAZICI, Sedat YAZICI
İngilizce Başlık
:
Ontological and Epistemic Foundations of The Stoic Theory of Emotions
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Stoa felsefesi, Stoa duygu kuramı, duygular, Khrysippos, Epiktetos
İng. Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Stoic philosophy, Stoic theory of emotions, emotions, Chysippus, Epictetus
Özet
:
Felsefe tarihçileri Stoalılar’ın duyguları “yargılar” olarak tanımladığında hemfikirdirler. Bu nedenledir ki çağdaş duygu felsefesinde Stoacı duygu açıklaması bilişselci duygu kuramları altında sınıflandırılır. Gerçekten de Stoalılar duyguları “yanlış yargılar” olarak görüler. Onlara göre yaşamın amacı doğaya ve akla uygun yaşamaktır. Bu tür bir yaşam ancak insan ruhunu duyguların bozucu ve yıkıcı etkilerinden arındırarak mümkündür. Duygular, onların kuramına göre, insan doğasını aşan aşırı arzular oldukları için insanın iç huzurunu ve mutluluğunu bozan “ruhun hastalıklarıdır.” Ancak, Stoa felsefesinde ontolojik ve epistemik temelden başlamak üzere duyguların ahlak alanında yapıcı rolüne ilişkin önemli değerlendirmeler mevcuttur. Bu makalenin amacı Stoalılar’ın duygu açıklamasını fizik, psikoloji, ahlak ve epistemoloji alanlarında geliştirdikleri temel kuramlar ve kavramlar çerçevesinde ele alarak onların kuramının pozitif yönünü açıklamaktır. Bunu yaparken Stoalıların “duyguların terapisi” yöntemini nasıl kullandıklarını göstermeye çalışacağız.
İngilizce Özet
:
Historians of philosophy agree that the Stoics defined emotions as “judgments”. It is for this reason that in the contemporary philosophy of emotion the Stoic account of emotion is classified among cognitive theories of emotion. Indeed, the Stoics see emotions as “false judgments.” According to them, the purpose of life is to live in accordance with nature and in a reasonable way; such a life is only possible by removing the human spirit from the disruptive and destructive effects of emotions. Emotions, according to their theory, are the diseases of the soul that disrupt the inner peace and happiness of people because they are excessive desires that exceed human nature. However, there are important evaluations on the constructive role of emotions in the field of morality, starting from the ontological and epistemic foundation in the philosophy of Stoa. The aim of this article is to explain the positive aspects of the Stoic emotions by explaining the emotion description in the context of basic theories and concepts that they developed in the fields of physics, psychology, ethics and epistemology. In doing so, we will try to show how the Stoics use the “therapy of emotions” method.
Extended Summary
:
There is a widespread agreement amongst scholars that the Stoics identify emotions as false judgments (Brennan, 1998: 21). Contemporary pure cognitive theory of emotion also asserts that emotions are judgments. However, evaluating the Stoics' understanding of emotion only within the axis of the cognitivist theory will be insufficient to explain the ontological and epistemological foundations of emotion in Stoic philosophy. Stoics’ understanding of emotion with its psychological aspects contain certain implications for moral, social and educational life. The Stoics were the first who introduced the canonical division of philosophy. They claimed that a philosophical theory should consist of three parts: Logic (including knowledge theory), Physics (necessarily involving theology and psychology) and Ethics. In The Lives of the Philosophers Diogenes Laertius notes that Zenon was the first put forward this distinction in his book titled Exposition of Doctrine (1925: 149). The tripartite areas of the Stoics philosophy are logically and conceptually related to each other. The conceptual and logical ties between physics and epistemology and epistemology and psychology also constitute the core of the systematic exposition of the Stoics’ understandings of emotions. For this reason, we should focus on the relationship of these three parts while addressing Stoic philosophy of emotions. For the Stoics, since Nature is wholly rational and anything that is opposed to God and Nature is irrational, the best life for wise and virtuous man is to live a life in accordance with nature or reason. It is important to note that the Stoics' understanding of soul is different from Plato's and Aristotle's understanding of divisional soul. This gives the hallmark of the Stoics psychology according to which unified, monistic individual soul is wholly rational containing no irrational faculty in itself. If the soul, for the Stoics, had essentially an irrational part, we could not speak of moral responsibility, nor could we attribute any moral value to our actions occurring as a result of compelling force of our emotions. Even we could have no moral knowledge. The Stoics claim that since all emotional and non-emotional acts occur as a result of assents of rational soul, we are all responsible actions resulting from them. The concept of assent has a special connotation in the Stoic epistemology. To give an assent is to understand that something is the case. According to the Stoics, all emotions, passions, desires and aversions arise from the individual mind’s own assents (dissents) to presentations. An emotion as an excessive impulse is a false judgment stemming from not well-justified approvals. In addition to be a false judgment, emotions are also intentional or inclined value judgments. As a value judgement an emotion is a strong, blinding desire that is disobedient to reason and reject reason. In relation to the Stoic understanding of the role of emotions in human life the most widely accepted view is that to live in accordance with nature a man should erase all emotions from his life. Epictetus states that intense emotions such as desire and disgust prevent people from living in nature or in a reasonable way (Epictetus, 1996: 23). However, we believe that it would be wrong to say that the Stoics philosophy was based on the concept of virtuous human being or virtuous life being fully rational and emotionless. We have shown that the Stoics also speak of three main “good emotions” (joy, prudence, demand) that play an important role in achieving virtue. Even the wise man has these emotions. Stoic philosophy does not recommend the partial or total elimination of emotions. Stoic idea of “therapy of emotion” should not be taken as a total elimination of emotions from human life. On the contrary, it should be taken as a “preventative therapy.” According to the Stoics’ therapy, we can eliminate the disruptive and destructive effects of emotions in human life when we strengthen our reason and replace our false value judgments with the right ones.
Pdf
:
Stoacı Duygu Kuramının Ontolojik Ve Epistemik Temelleri Tam Metin
No: 14 - 12/2018 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
Künye
Sahibi / Owner
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör ve Sorumlu Yazı İşleri Müdürü / Editor
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör Yardımcıları / Assistant Editors
Emrah AKDENİZ
Ömer Faik ANLI
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Ahmet İNAM
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdal CENGİZ
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
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Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Sedat YAZICI
(Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi)
Emrah Akdeniz
(Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi)
Senem KURTAR
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(Ankara Üniversitesi)
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Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Felsefe Bölümü, Ankara

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