Han Feizi Düşüncesinin Politik Temelleri “Yasa” ve “Düzen”, No: 14 - 12/2018
Başlık
:
Han Feizi Düşüncesinin Politik Temelleri “Yasa” ve “Düzen”
Yazar(lar)
:
İlknur SERTDEMİR DIAGNE
İngilizce Başlık
:
Political Foundations In The Thought of Han Feizi: “Law” and “Order”
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Han Feizi, Fa ekolü, Yasacılar, Yasa, Ödül, Ceza
İng. Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Han Feizi, the School of Law, Legalism, Law, Reward, Punishment
Özet
:
Antik Çin’de felsefenin doğduğu Doğu Zhou Hanedanlığı (M.Ö.770-M.Ö. 221), toplumsal düzenin sağlanmasında birbirinden farklı öğretilerin açıklandığı bir dönemdir. Savaşan Beylikler Dönemi (M.Ö. 476- M.Ö. 221)’nde yaşayan Han Feizi (M.Ö. 280-M.Ö 236), Çin’de ortaya çıkan düşünce akımlarından olan ve Yasacılar olarak da bilinen Fa ekolü ilkelerini bir araya getiren ve bu ilkeleri kanuna dayalı politik bir sisteme bağlayan düşünür olarak anılır. Han Feizi öğretisini diğer öğretilerden farklı kılan özellik ise, toplumsal düzenin sağlanması yolunda katı kurallara dayanan anlayışıdır. Han Feizi’ya göre, ülkeye hakim olan savaşlar ve savaşların yol açtığı kaos sürecinin esas kaynağı, siyasal otoritenin sarsılmasıdır. Bu bağlamda ülke bütünlüğünün yeniden oluşması, ancak ve ancak “yasa” temelli bir yönetim şeklinden geçer. Böylesi bir düzen, hanedanlıktan halka kadar her kesime ulaşmalı; belirlenen yasaklar, eşitlik ve adalet prensibine göre uygulanmalıdır. Aynı zamanda yasaklara uyanlar ödüllendirilmeli; uymayanlar cezalandırılmalıdır. Çünkü Han Feizi düşüncesinde egemenliğin devamlılığı esastır. Bu nedenle Han Feizi öğretisi, sonraki dönem hanedanlık yönetimi üzerinde oldukça etkili olmuştur ve aslında Çin, tarihsel süreci boyunca Fa ekolü ilkelerine göre yönetilmiştir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada, Han Feizi öğretisindeki farkın “ne” olduğunu detaylı olarak incelenecek ve “yasa” temelli bir toplumsal düzene dayanan politik görüşün asıl kaynağı analiz edilecektir.
İngilizce Özet
:
Eastern Zhou Dynasty (B.C.770-B.C. 221), when philosophy had originated in ancient China, is a period in which different doctrines had been explained to restore social order. Han Feizi (B.C. 280-B.C 236), had lived in Warring States Period (B.C 476-B.C. 221), has been referred as a philosopher who built and politically codified the principles of the school of Law which is one of the schools of thought established in China, also called Legalism. In case, the different quiddity of the doctrine of Han Feizi is the comprehension based upon the strict rules in order to restore social order. As view of Han Feizi, the main reason of wars in the country and the period of chaos caused by battle is the breakdown of political authority. In this regard, to provide political integrity, the polity has to be established on base of “law”. Such an order should get through every class from dynasty to community and prohibitions should impose in the disciplines of equality and justice. Furthermore, the ones who obey the rules should be rewarded and the ones who break the rules should be punished. Forwhy, permanence of the sovereignty is essential in the thought of Han Feizi. So the doctrine of Han Feizi had greatly influenced the polity of government in the next periods and indeed China, has been administrated by the principles of Legalism throughout the historical process. Consequently in this study, the difference in the doctrine of Han Feizi will be examined in detail and the primary source of the political thought, holds a social order within “law-based”, will be analyzed.
Extended Summary
:
Eastern Zhou Dynasty (B.C. 770-B.C. 221), when philosophy had originated in ancient China, is a period in which different doctrines had been explained to restore social order. Because the main periods of Eastern Zhou Dynasty, Spring and Autumn Period (B.C. 770-B.C. 476) and Warring States Period (B.C. 476- B.C. 221), were a chaos environment where internal disorders took place. In that period, political, social, economic and martial disturbances had dominated the whole country throughout the years. There were several bloody battles for reign among the seigniors’ based on struggles for throne and power. Therewith, philosophers had begun looking for a remedy to put an end to the existing state of chaos. In this way, the basis of Chinese philosophy had been built inside widespread thoughts and ideas, under the term of “The Hundred Schools of Thought (ZhuziBaiJia諸子百家)”, which were discussed and developed along with Chinese history. Among those movements of thought, most effects on Chinese culture and history, had been adopted as Taoism (School of the Way/ Dao Jia道家), Confucianism (School of Scholars / Ru Jia儒家), Mohism (School of Mo / Mo Jia墨家) and Legalism (School of Law / Fa Jia法家). Those schools of thought had the doctrines different from each other but the aims same as one another. The common purpose had decisively been to restore the social order as well as earlier times. Following this, each philosopher had developed his own doctrine on political and moral teachings to raise social consciousness and awareness. Such as, Laozi had explained a metaphysical doctrine described as “Way (Dao道) is the source and ideal of all existence” whereas Confucius (B.C. 551– B.C. 479) had developed a moral doctrine named “ethics of self-cultivation (De德)” and Mozi (B.C. 470– B.C. 391) had put forward the idea of “impartial care (Jian Ai兼愛)”. On the other hand, Han Feizi had maintained a political doctrine, which was entirely different from the other doctrines, represents the opinion of “law (Fa法) is the principle to change innate human nature”. As it is seen, the teaching of Han Feizi, had been in another perspective of Chinese thought, but later on greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government. Han Feizi (B.C. 280-B.C. 236), had lived in Warring States Period (B.C. 476-B.C. 221), has been referred as a philosopher who built and politically codified the principles of the school of Law which is one of the schools of thought established in China, also called Legalism. In case, the different quiddity of the doctrine of Han Feizi, is the comprehension based upon the strict rules in order to restore social order. As view of Han Feizi, the main reason of wars in the country and the period of chaos caused by battle is the breakdown of political authority. In this regard, to provide political integrity, the polity has to be established on base of “law”. Because “law” is the principle to change innate human nature. According to Han Feizi, innate human nature is “bad” and so chaos environment is unavoidable. To avoid chaos environment, innate human nature have to be “good” by the way of “law” being enforced strict rules to order. Such an order should get through every class from dynasty to community and prohibitions should impose in the disciplines of equality and justice. Furthermore, the ones who obey the rules should be rewarded and the ones who break the rules should be punished. For why, permanence of the sovereignty is essential in the thought of Han Feizi. So, the doctrine of Han Feizi had greatly influenced the polity of government in the next periods and indeed China, has been administrated by the principles of Legalism throughout the historical process. Consequently in this study, the difference in the doctrine of Han Feizi will be examined in detail and the primary source of the political thought, holds a social order within “law-based”, will be analyzed.
Pdf
:
Han Feizi Düşüncesinin Politik Temelleri “Yasa” ve “Düzen” Tam Metin
No: 14 - 12/2018 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
Künye
Sahibi / Owner
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör ve Sorumlu Yazı İşleri Müdürü / Editor
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör Yardımcıları / Assistant Editors
Emrah AKDENİZ
Ömer Faik ANLI
Yayın Kurulu / Editorial Board
Ahmet İNAM
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdal CENGİZ
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Kurtuluş DİNÇER
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Sedat YAZICI
(Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi)
Emrah Akdeniz
(Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi)
Senem KURTAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Seyit COŞKUN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Ömer Faik ANLI
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Danışma Kurulu / Board of Consultants
A.Kadir ÇÜÇEN
(Uludağ Üniversitesi)
Ayhan SOL
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Barış PARKAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Besim DELLALOĞLU
(Sakarya Üniversitesi)
Cemal GÜZEL
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Çetin TÜRKYILMAZ
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Elif ÇIRAKMAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdinç SAYAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Güçlü ATEŞOĞLU
(Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi)
Gülay ÖZDEMİR AKGÜNDÜZ
(Bingöl Üniversitesi)
Güzin YAMANER
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Halil TURAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Harun TEPE
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Hüseyin Gazi TOPDEMİR
(Muğla Üniversitesi)
Kubilay AYSEVENER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
M.Cihan CAMCI
(Akdeniz Üniversitesi)
Melih BAŞARAN
(Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Nazile KALAYCI
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Nilgün TOKER KILINÇ
(Ege Üniversitesi)
Remzi DEMİR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
R. Levent AYSEVER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
Serpil SANCAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Yasin CEYLAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Zeynep DİREK
(Koç Üniversitesi)
M. Murat YÜCEŞAHİN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Vefa Saygın ÖĞÜTLE
(Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi)
Sekreterya / Secretariat
Zeynep İrem ÖZATAY
Yazışma Adresi / Mailing Address
Ankara Üniversitesi,
Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Felsefe Bölümü, Ankara

Posseible Düşünme Dergisi hakemli bir dergidir. Yılda iki sayı olmak üzere elektronik ortamda yayınlanır. Posseible Düşünme Dergisi 2016 yılından itibaren The Philosopher's Index tarafından dizinlenmektedir.
ISSN: 2147-1622
editor@posseible.com
www.posseible.com
Tel: 0 312 310 3280 / 1232 – 1233
Posseible Düşünme Dergisi - editor@posseible.com
İşbu sitenin tüm hakları saklıdır. Site içerisindeki dökümanlar izinsiz ve kaynak gösterilmeden kullanılamaz. © 2012
Web Tasarım