Edward Said’in “Mekânsal Dönüş”e Katkısı, No: 14 - 12/2018
Başlık
:
Edward Said’in “Mekânsal Dönüş”e Katkısı
Yazar(lar)
:
Pınar YURDADÖN ASLAN, Nuri YAVAN
Title
:
Edward Said’s Contribution to The “Spatial Turn”
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Mekân, mekânsal dönüş, Edward Said, hayali coğrafyalar, coğrafyanın tarihi ve felsefesi
Key Words
:
Space, Spatial Turn, Edward Said, Imagined geographies, History and Philosophy of Geography
Özet 1 / Abstract 1
:
Kökleri 1970’lere uzanan ve doruk noktasına 1990’larda ulaşan “Mekânsal Dönüş” (Spatial Turn) süreci bir girişim ve geçici bir ilgiden öte mekâna ilişkin ve mekânla ilişkili çalışmalarda esaslı bir yol değişikliği yaratmıştır. Bu süreç beşeri coğrafyanın sosyal teori ile yakınlaşma süreci olarak önceki dönemlerden farklı bir “mekân” tartışmasını içermektedir. Diğer yandan aynı süreci sosyal/beşeri bilim alanında “mekân”ı ortak bir araştırma nesnesi olarak gören disiplinlerin yakınlaşması, “mekânda buluşması” olarak da görmek mümkündür. Edward Said ise postkolonyal çalışmalar ve kültürel çalışmalar alanında mekânsal dönüşün başlıca müellifi olarak görülebilir. Said, kendi yaşam öyküsüyle dolayımladığı ilksel yaklaşımları ve coğrafi habitusunun öne çıkan varlığıyla ortaya koyduğu çeşitli kavramsallaştırmalarıyla (başlıcası “hayali coğrafyalar”) döneminin siyaset ve kültür anlayışına devrimsel bir katkıda bulunurken, aynı zamanda beşeri coğrafyanın da ihtiyaç duyulan güncel tartışmalara açılım imkânını yaratmıştır. Bu imkân sadece beşeri coğrafyaya yönelik olmayıp, mekân(sal)a yönelen ilgi ile dönemin eleştirel coğrafi perspektiften yoksun gelişen düşün alanı için de geçerlidir. Buradan hareketle mevcut Türkçe beşeri coğrafya literatürünün Said’in çalışmalarına yönelik farkındalığını artırmak ve mekânsal dönüşe olan katkısını görünür kılmak bu çalışmanın başlıca amacıdır. Bu bağlamda yöntembilimsel bakımdan Said’in Şarkiyatçılık (Orientalism-1978) ve Kültür ve Emperyalizm (Culture and Imperialism- 1993) isimli çalışmaları temel referans kaynaklar olarak seçilmiş olup, bu kaynaklar çeşitli makaleler, yazara ve yazınına ilişkin diğer akademik metinler, görüş ve notlarla desteklenmiştir. Yapılan değerlendirmeler ile Said’in “insanın yalnız kendi tarihini değil coğrafyasını da yaptığı” yönündeki yaklaşımıyla mekânın yapısal ilişkisel üretimi ortaya konmakta, kimlik ve hafıza ya da rasyonel olgular ile yüklenen toplumsal inşası anlamlandırılmaktadır. Ayrıca hegemonya ve iktidarın –tıpkı Doğu ve Batı örneğinde olduğu gibi- mekânsal temsili, temsilin (kolonyal) söylemle iç içe geçen yapısı serimlenmektedir. Sonuç olarak, Said’in coğrafi kavramsallaştırmaları güncelliğini korumakta ve hala küresel-yerel bağlamı tarihsel-coğrafi bir perspektifle açıklamada geçerli olmaktadır.
Özet 2 / Abstract 2
:
Beyond being just a fad, the process of “Spatial Turn” whose roots date back to 1970s and that experienced its heydays during 1990s has left a significant effect on the studies pertinent to space. Contrary to the previous trends, this rapprochement process between human geography and social theory covers a different “space” discussion. On the other hand, the very same process can also be viewed as the reconciliation of the disciplines that view the “space” as a common research ground. Edward Said can be viewed as the pioneer of spatial turn in postcolonial and cultural studies. Inspired of his own life story, Said’s path-breaking approaches and conceptions (like “imagined geographies”) mediated with the geographical habitus not only made a revolutionary contribution to the understanding of politics and culture of the time but also paved the way for geography to open up itself to craved hot discussions. In other words, with the newborn interest in the “spatial”, both human geography and other fields that had ignored a critical geographical perspective till then attained new prospects. With this in mind, the major purpose of this paper is to create and expand an awareness in Turkish human geography literature for Said’s contribution and make its contributions to the spatial turn visible. In this paper, Orientalism (1978) and Culture and Imperialism (1983) have been chosen as the basic references for Said’s approach which is also critiqued with reference to various papers and views pondering on his approach. Taking Said’s notion “human not only makes his history but also his geography” as the starting point it is showed how memory/identity or rationality bound social space is produced structurally and relationally. Furthermore, spatial representation of hegemony and power and the intertwined structure of representation and (colonial) discourse is depicted. Finally, the viability of Said’s geographical conceptualizations as keys for explaining global-local dichotomy through a historical and geographical perspective will be demonstrated.
Extended Summary
:
1. INTRODUCTION: The emphasis placed on space that is defined as “spatial turn” in social science and the humanities is addressed in the study about framework in terms of postcolonial studies aspect of spatial turn, which is a field that originated from cultural studies and that can be expressed as explaining from/through spatial position. The main purpose of the study is to demonstrate spatial/geographical contribution of Edward Said who is one of the leading representatives of postcolonial studies field alongside Gayatri Spivak and Homi Bhabha and who is the primary reference of the field. Edward Said’s studies are regarded as the leading studies of spatial turn in terms of cultural and postcolonial studies (Gregory, 1995, 2004; Barnett, 2006; Frank, 2009; Soja, 2009, 2010; Driver, 2014; Morin, 2018). While Said’s works Orientalism and, Culture and Imperialism which are regarded as its continued work constitute the main reference resources of the study; other studies which set forth the importance of geography and space have been also used (Said, 1990, 2000, 2014). Moreover; secondary resources that address and interpret geographical perspective of Said from different points of view have also been used so much so that the study followed a qualitative research pattern in this regard. While there is a remarkable international literature which studies Said’s geographical and spatial approach in different scales and different groups, it is not the case in Turkey and studies mostly focus on critical analysis of geopolitical practices and political geography discourse. In this sense, this study qualifies as the first Turkish study that addresses Said’s geographical perspective and his contributions to the agenda of “spatial turn”. 2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK: ORIGINS OF SPATIAL TURN The concept of “spatial turn” is an intellectual movement or a process of paradigmatic turn that is based on geographical awareness in social sciences (and the humanities); which contain forms of involving “space” in the analysis, approaching a topic from or with a spatial point of view and conducting peer-peer evaluation of geography and history in such regard; the history of which goes back to the creative environment and notable actors of the 1970s; which accelerated in 1980s and which peaked in 1990s. For the last 30 years, social scientists have somehow integrated the concept of space and its changing variants that are concepts like place, region, territory, location, landscaping and scape into their own studies and as such they developed a spatial perspective. In this regard, today’s/contemporary interdisciplinary “spatial turn” movement that is evident in social sciences and the humanities are basically inspired by two sources: the primary source can be considered as studies of philosophers and scientists who are not within the geography such as primarily Foucault and Lefebvre and also de Certeau, Said, Castells, Giddens and Bachelard. These world-renowned thinkers have somehow brought up spatiality and geographical perspective or conceptualized them in different ways through their own studies. The second source is undoubtedly the studies of the geographers who set forth the importance of spatial processes and spatial analysis in the analysis of historical, social, economic, cultural and political processes and which carry that beyond their own discipline like primarily David Harvey and also Edward Soja, Neil Smith, Doreen Massey, Derek Gregory, Gillian Rose and Denis Cosgrove, Allen Scott and Michael Storper. 3. EDWARD SAID'S PLACE AND GEOGRAPHICAL PERSPECTIVE IN THE PROCESS OF SPATIAL TURN: Spatial turn has evolved with contribution of postcolonial culture critics such as Edward Said and under the influence of their cultural studies (Soja,2009:24). For Said, Orientalism is a style of thinking that is based on the – ontological and epistemological – distinction between the East and the West and “that is good for addressing the foreign” (2017:55) and is a Western style that is used to impose power/authority on the East. “Imaginative geographies” describe creating and constructing a geographical space beyond a physical region, that limits our own consciousness and behaviours as a result of sweeping under the carpet or not paying attention to the local realities” (Said, 2000:181; Morin, 2018:576). In a sense, the entire inquiry of orientalism relies on and is nourished by imaginative geographies. While imperial understanding that is based on geography by nature moves forward through activities of geographical exploration and mapping / cartography, the belief in Europe’s superiority in terms of nature and history legitimises imperial fragmentation of the world. Geographer Mackinder who is one of the actors of that period is one of those who established the link between imperialism and geography (2016:84,284). Here Said actually expresses the environmental determinist geography practice of that period. According to Said, the historical and philosophical implications of Western novels contain an implied geographical representation. Jane Austen’s novel “Mansfield Park” (1814) focuses on rejuvenating a real estate in England, Mansfield Park in a metropolis through savings obtained from wide plantations in Western Hindu Islands that are among overseas assets of England (2016:96,121,133). While Napoleon’s Egyptian campaign is pretty important for Said as it triggered the modern colonist period, the text of the campaign that was written by the army of specialists whom he took along and that was shortly named as “Description” is important as much since it reconstructs reality from an imperial point of view. Said also indicates how Cairo was generated “as an attraction for Europeans” as a product of a modernist mentality by help of Hıdiv İsmail Pasha and how conflict and disintegration became evident (2016:165-174; 2017: 93). In Rudyard Kipling’s novel “Kim” (1901), space is addressed as a type of “view” and is approached from a pastoral point of view within the scope of the long journey and adventure Kim and the old priest take. It is as if the novel is not set in a place that is under siege and control of the English but in a place that is free from power relations of space and life (Said, 2016:124,181-213). According to Said, Albert Camus’s novels are also element of political Algerian geography and contribute to imperial narrative of France. Camus chose Algeria as the space of his narrations where he always describes France but under different conditions. While he never mentions the Algerian, the French are described as always being there independently of time and space (Said, 1990: 87-90; 2016:225). 4. CONCLUSION: Said’s orientalism that originates from a critical and cultural context has used geographical context as a means of bringing spatial issues to the agenda of social theory. Said who set to work in a way through “geographicalization of mentality” were accompanied partly by Antonio Gramsci in terms of using geographical method and partly by Neil Smith in terms of using geographical perspective in such construction. Therefore Edward Said built his study together with geographical context and did this in a very deliberate way and by advocating the necessity of addressing in such a way. This has made him one of the most prominent actors of spatial turn agenda.
Pdf
:
Edward Said’in “Mekânsal Dönüş”e Katkısı Tam Metin / Full Text
No: 14 - 12/2018 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
Künye
Sahibi / Owner
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör ve Sorumlu Yazı İşleri Müdürü / Editor
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör Yardımcıları / Assistant Editors
Emrah AKDENİZ
Ömer Faik ANLI
Yayın Kurulu / Editorial Board
Ahmet İNAM
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdal CENGİZ
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Kurtuluş DİNÇER
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Sedat YAZICI
(Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi)
Emrah Akdeniz
(Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi)
Senem KURTAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Seyit COŞKUN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Ömer Faik ANLI
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Danışma Kurulu / Board of Consultants
A.Kadir ÇÜÇEN
(Uludağ Üniversitesi)
Ayhan SOL
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Barış PARKAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Besim DELLALOĞLU
(Sakarya Üniversitesi)
Cemal GÜZEL
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Çetin TÜRKYILMAZ
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Elif ÇIRAKMAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdinç SAYAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Güçlü ATEŞOĞLU
(Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi)
Gülay ÖZDEMİR AKGÜNDÜZ
(Bingöl Üniversitesi)
Güzin YAMANER
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Halil TURAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Harun TEPE
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Hüseyin Gazi TOPDEMİR
(Muğla Üniversitesi)
Kubilay AYSEVENER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
M.Cihan CAMCI
(Akdeniz Üniversitesi)
Melih BAŞARAN
(Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Nazile KALAYCI
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Nilgün TOKER KILINÇ
(Ege Üniversitesi)
Remzi DEMİR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
R. Levent AYSEVER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
Serpil SANCAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Yasin CEYLAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Zeynep DİREK
(Koç Üniversitesi)
M. Murat YÜCEŞAHİN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Vefa Saygın ÖĞÜTLE
(Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi)
Sekreterya / Secretariat
Zeynep İrem ÖZATAY
Yazışma Adresi / Mailing Address
Ankara Üniversitesi,
Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Felsefe Bölümü, Ankara

Posseible Düşünme Dergisi hakemli bir dergidir. Yılda iki sayı olmak üzere elektronik ortamda yayınlanır. Posseible Düşünme Dergisi 2016 yılından itibaren The Philosopher's Index tarafından dizinlenmektedir.
ISSN: 2147-1622
editor@posseible.com
www.posseible.com
Tel: 0 312 310 3280 / 1232 – 1233
Posseible Düşünme Dergisi - editor@posseible.com
İşbu sitenin tüm hakları saklıdır. Site içerisindeki dökümanlar izinsiz ve kaynak gösterilmeden kullanılamaz. © 2012
Web Tasarım