Küçük/Süfli Politikaya Karşı Büyük/Soylu Politika: Nietzsche’de Politik O/Alanın Yeniden Değerlendirilmesi, No: 15 - 06/2019
Başlık
:
Küçük/Süfli Politikaya Karşı Büyük/Soylu Politika: Nietzsche’de Politik O/Alanın Yeniden Değerlendirilmesi
Yazar(lar)
:
Sever IŞIK
Title
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Grand/Higher Politics Versus Petty/Lower Politics: Reconsideration of What Politics Means/Political Sphere in Nietzsche
Anahtar Kelimeler
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Büyük Politika, Politik Nihilizm, Üst İnsan, Kültür, Savaş
Key Words
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Grand Politic. Petty Politic, Political Nihism, Übermensch, Culture, War
Özet 1 / Abstract 1
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Nietzsche, sistematik olamamakla beraber politik bir vizyon ve projeye sahip bir filozoftur. Kendi politik vizyonunu ve projesini “büyük politika” kavramıyla adlandıran Nietzsche, “küçük politika” olarak tanımladığı/aşağıladığı çağdaşı olan politikalara ise sürekli taarruz eder. Politik düşüncesi Bismarck’ın politikalarından derinden etkiler taşıyan Nietzsche’nin “büyük politika” kavramı tarihsel süreçle birlikte bir kısım değişimler gösterir. Filozof, kavrama süreç içerisinde yeni anlamlar yükler. Önceleri negatif bir şekilde kullandığı kavramı daha sonra yeni ve pozitif bir içerikle tanımlayarak temellük eder. Büyük politika ile onun amacı Avrupa’nın bir kader olarak yaşadığı politik dekadansın aşılması, yüksek ve sağlıklı bir politik kültürün yaratılması, Avrupa’nın yeryüzü egemenliğinin temin edilmesidir. Siyasal olanı antagonistik bir karakterde tanımlayan büyük politika kültürel, politik ve ruhani karakterdeki savaşı olumlar. Kültürel boyutuyla büyük politikanın “değerlerin yeniden değerlendirilmesi” projesinin bir parçası ve yaşamın onaylanması çabası olarak anlaşılması gerekir. Güç istemini azaltan modern politikaya karşı büyük politika güç istemini arttırma ve üst insanın yaratımına odaklanmıştır. Büyük politika bugünden çok yaratılmak istenen geleceğin politikasıdır.
Özet 2 / Abstract 2
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Nietzsche is a philosopher with a political vision and projection, although not in a systematical manner. Nietzsche, who identifies his political vision and projection with the notion of “grand politics”, constantly attacks the contemporary politics as described or despised by him as “petty politics”. Nietzsche’s political opinions were deeply influenced by the policies of Bismarck and his conception of “grand politics” somehow changed during the course of history. The philosopher attributes new meanings to this concept within the process. While he was using this concept with a negative connotation in the past, he appropriates it later by defining it with a totally new and positive context. What he aims with grand politics is to defeat Europe’s predestined political decadence, to establish a higher and more reliable political culture and to ensure Europe’s dominance over the world. Grand politics defines the political one as an antagonistic character and affirms a war with the political and spiritual nature. In terms of its cultural dimension, grand politics needs to be considered as part of the project called “reconsideration of values” by Nietzsche as an effort to justify life. On the contrary to modern politics which minimizes the will to power, grand politics focuses on increasing the will to power and the creation of higher humans. Grand politics represents the politics of a desirable future to be built rather than todays.
Extended Summary
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This article aims to prove that Nietzsche had a political vision, and to manifest the implications of this political vision by tracing the notion of grand politics. Nietzsche is a philosopher with a political vision and projection, although not in a systematical manner. It is possible to follow Nietzsche’s political vision and projection through the historical evolution of the concepts of “grand politics” and “petty politics” that he uses. While culture is a primary issue for him, his political vision encompasses philosophical, social and political implications and context beyond culture. Nietzsche describes all contemporary politics as petty politics. He attacks such politics all the time. All politics, which predicate themselves upon ruling, benefit and comprise, rather than focusing on the creation of higher humans and the future, are petty, low and banal politics. Every modern and democratic politics that relies on the masses and surrenders to the will of the herd is a petty / inferior politics. In addition, all modern political ideologies are nothing more than the derivations of democracy that implies the dissolution and corruption of the state and political being. The modern state that suppresses individualism leads to political nihilism-decadence by minimizing “the will to power”. The modern state and democracy, in pursuit of equality, indicates the collapse of life. They justify themselves not with the elite but the common, relying on the masses against the elite. The modern state/politics has been a real vehicle of nihilism due to its nature lacking higher ideals, excluding free and creative individualism and hindering the development of higher humans. The modern politics and state does not have a political trait, since they have become a legal-bureaucratic mechanism and deny the will power. Nietzsche introduces a new political vision and projection to replace the petty politics that he opposes and strives to overcome. In opposition to this low and petty politics as a part of the Western nihilism, Nietzsche articulates his political vision with the concept of “grand politics”. Grand politics is the positive aspect of Nietzsche’s political philosophy which is meant to defeat the modern state and its petty/inferior politics. Nietzsche’s political opinions were deeply influenced by the policies of Bismarck and his conception of “grand politics” somehow changed during the course of history. The philosopher attributes new meanings to this concept within the process. While he was using this concept with a negative connotation in the past, he appropriates it later by defining it with a totally new and positive context. Taking into consideration its projected ideas, this politics may also be referred to as the noble and supreme politics. The grand politics is based on the will of the master to power, not on the ethics of the slave. Setting its sights on future, grand politics aims to defeat political decadence. Grand politics does not only include cultural objectives. Grand politics aim to establish a higher and more reliable political culture and to ensure Europe’s dominance over the world. Grand politics defines the political one as an antagonistic character and affirms a war with the political and spiritual nature. Grand politics represents the politics of the desirable future to be built rather than today’s. Grand politics is challenging oneself beyond good or evil, functioning above ethics and in a compatible manner with nature. Grand politics will put the state mechanism at the disposal of the higher human. Grand politics rejects statist and nationalist policies for the benefit of higher kinds and continental Europe respectively; it aims to unite Europe entirely as a transnational project under the leadership of a superior elite. Furthermore, Nietzsche’s grand politics also involves a colonialist/imperialist dream and an expansionist idea across the world. He wishes for “decent Europeans” to dominate not only Europe but also the entire world. According to Nietzsche, what needs to be done now is to adopt great imperial politics with the aim of world dominance, rather than petty (nationalist) politics. World dominance is a global mission which is meant for an elite European caste. In this context, grand politics favors political and military battles as well as a cultural war. Whilst grand politics does not deny power politics to be enforced via “blood and sword” for the sake of Continental Europe, it refers to a “battle of ideas/souls” which will shape the future of Europe. This battle represents an intellectual fight to be performed by an anti-Christian “party of living”. On the contrary to Bismarck’s Kulturkamp aspiring to weaken the public power of Catholicism in favor of the state and Protestantism; the battle of souls, which intends to expel all Christian values from life, is a total war against Christianity. The battle of souls aims to regenerate the culture in a way to acknowledge life as a whole, by means of termination and abolition of Christianity. The values to be established by grand politics will differ from, and take precedence over modern values. This is because modernism does not encompass any positive ethos or ideals. The modern political culture is the climax of decadence which started with Socrates. Petty politics, which was Socrates’s way of politics, has become now outdated with the ultimate human. Grand politics are to be executed by a higher human will be based on the will of the noble human to power, not contracts. While grand politics intends for Europe’s dominance over the world and the defeat of Christianity, it also involves a dreadful eugenic aspect. Grand politics rigorously addresses issues such as nutrition and fertility, treating physiology as the queen of all problems, and it is quite apparent that it is required to apply not only education but also fertility policies in order to create high generations of the future. Grand politics will relentlessly terminate anything corrupt and parasitical. It will establish a social order on the basis of hierarchy. It is hard to ignore that grand politics, which was introduced by Nietzsche as an alternative to democratic politics, has some formidable and horrible implications. It is certain that this politics is ready to sacrifice the ordinary human for the sake of fulfilling objectives of the super human, notwithstanding that it aims for something like the creation of a higher human which may sound positive from time to time. The most explicit trait of the grand politics is its opposition to democracy. Nietzsche writes in a way yearning for a radical and subversive aristocracy which is ready to sacrifice people for the benefit of the higher human. The entire humanity is usually considered as an expendable cost for the sake of an elite minority. Grand politics is terrifying since it is ready to burn the entirety of humanity to ensure the fulfillment of an elite minority’s will. What defines this politics is neither contracts or laws nor traditions but the will to power, which cannot be bounded by hard law.
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Küçük/Süfli Politikaya Karşı Büyük/Soylu Politika: Nietzsche’de Politik O/Alanın Yeniden Değerlendirilmesi Tam Metin / Full Text
No: 15 - 06/2019 - Tüm Makaleler
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