The Reading Act and The Negational Character of Repertoire in Wolfgang Iser, No: 15 - 06/2019
Başlık
:
The Reading Act and The Negational Character of Repertoire in Wolfgang Iser
Yazar(lar)
:
Murat ÇELİK
Title
:
Wolfgang Iser’de Okuma Edimi ve Repertuarın Negatif Karakteri
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Dünya Sistemi, Arkaplan-Önplan İlişkisi, Paradigmatik Eksen, Repertuar, Metinsel Stratejiler, De-Pragmatizasyon
Key Words
:
World System, Background-Foreground Relation, Paradigmatic Axis, Repertoire, Textual Strategies, De-pragmatization
Özet 1 / Abstract 1
:
In this paper, I will try to reveal the problematic relation of fiction with extra-textual reality by focusing on Wolfgang Iser’s notion of repertoire. Iser defines repertoire as the familiar elements that are involved in the text. The fictional texts accommodate familiar elements, but when they represent these elements, they do this through putting into question their meaning and validity by presenting them to the reader as themes in themselves by means of de-pragmatization. Through the process of de- pragmatization literary works negates the habitual dispositon of the reader and forces her to reflect on this very dispositon. At the end of this process, the reader may be constrained to re-construct her dispositon and her understanding of reality. Thus, the literary work does not represent the extra-textual world by merely replicating it, but by re-shaping and augmenting it. My aim here is to show that Iser’s theory equips us with a fruitful theoretical frame for understanding literature as a medium that has the power to change what we call the extra-textual reality.
Özet 2 / Abstract 2
:
Bu yazıda Wolfgang Iser’in repertoire nosyonuna yoğunlaşarak kurmaca ile metin-dışı gerçeklik arasındaki ilişkiye yeni bir bakış açısı getirmeye çalışacağım. Iser kurmaca metinde yer alan ve bize metin-dışı dünyadan tanıdık gelen unsurları repertuar nosyonu altında tanımlar. Kurmaca metinler içinde yaşadığımız dünyadan aşina olduğumuz unsurlar barındırırlar, fakat bu unsurlar metin tarafından temsil edilirken de-pragmatizasyona uğrar ve okura kendinde temalar olarak sunularak bir sorgulamanın nesnesi haline getirilirler. Bu sorgulama bir süre sonra bu unsurların sorgulanmasının ötesine geçer ve metin kullandığı metinsel stratejiler aracılığıyla okurun kendi eğilimleri üzerine bir öz-düşünme edimi içine girmesine neden olur. Hatta bu sürecin sonunda okur kendi eğilimlerini ve gerçeklik anlayışını yeniden kurmak zorunda kalabilir. Dolayısıyla metin okurun gerçekliğini değiştirme gücüne sahiptir. Buradaki amacımız Iser’in kuramının bize metnin bu değiştirici gücünü açımlayabilecek verimli bir çerçeve sunduğunu göstermek olacaktır.
Extended Summary
:
This paper, through the notion of repertoire, aims to elucidate Wolfgang Iser’s ideas about the relation between the fictional world and the extra-textual world. Wolfgang Iser aims to conceptualize literature from a pragmatic point of view and in order to achieve this aim he focuses on the interaction between the fiction and the reader; namely the act of reading act. For Iser the reading act is a communicative interaction between the text and the reader. Iser claims that if that which is to be communicated were not to some extent unfamiliar, communication would be unnecessary. To communicate what is known is to deprive communication of all its cognitive value. However, if that which is communicated would be deprived off all familiar elements, this time communication would be impossible. For communication to occur, there must be some meeting point between the text and the reader; and this meeting point is constituted by the familiar elements that are involved in the text. Hence, fictional texts accommodate familiar elements, but when they represent these elements, they do this through putting into question their meaning and validity by presenting them to the reader as themes in themselves by means of de-pragmatization. By means of de-pragmatization, the familiar elements in the literary works They are pulled out of their social context, deprived of their regulating function, and they begin to be stripped of their validity. In this way, they become objects of scrutiny in themselves. Iser calls all the familiar territory in a literary text the “repertoire” of the text. : “[Repertoire] may be in the form of references to earlier works, or to social and historical norms, or to the whole culture from which the text has emerged – in brief, . . . [to] the ‘extratextual’ reality”. As we mentioned, the repertoire elements are represented in the text such that they are de-pragmitized and as such they become problematic in themselves. By problematizing what is familiar, the literary text forces the reader to reflect on her understanding of these familiar elements. Accordingly, the fiction represents reality by de-pragmatizing it, and by means of de-pragmatization it puts the reader’s habitual understanding of reality under question: reality becomes problematic under the shock of the fiction. According to Iser the habitual understanding of reality is a construction of the dominant social forces the epoch and every epoch has a different understanding of reality. Iser calls these constructions, the “world systems”. Each world system is constructed through a convention and organizes contingent reality into a definite order by means of regulative structures. In other words, each world system reduces the contingent reality into a comprehensible and definite structure. In this regard, they single out some possibilities while neutralizing or excluding some others. Hence, a world system is constructed by virtue of a selective process that gives stability to the dominant possibilities. However, the possibilities that have been neutralized or excluded for the sake of stability do not disappear totally; they remain on the fringes of the dominant system in a deactivated state. Fictional narratives operate in relation to these ordered systems. What they intend is, however, not to reproduce these systems but to activate those possibilities that were deactivated by the dominant system. By virtue of triggering the possibilities negated by the dominant system, fictional narrative denotes the system’s limited ability to cope with the complexity of reality, and consequently reveals its deficiencies. All in all, repertoire appears in Iser’s theory as a negative structure. But, by virtue of its negative character, it reveals what the reader has not hitherto been made aware. In that sense, it is a creative negativity that contributes to the communicative function of literature. Repertoire do not affect the habitual dispositions of their readers by prescribing to them what the world they live in is like or how it should be, but rather by revealing the deficiencies of which the reader is not fully aware in her daily routine. Hence, literature does not represent reality as a mere replica, but represents it by augmenting our understanding of reality. This is what I will call the productive power of literature.
Pdf
:
The Reading Act and The Negational Character of Repertoire in Wolfgang Iser Tam Metin / Full Text
No: 15 - 06/2019 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
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