Sosyal Adaletsizlik, İnsan Hakları ve “Mültecilik”, No: 16 - 12/2019
Başlık
:
Sosyal Adaletsizlik, İnsan Hakları ve “Mültecilik”
Yazar(lar)
:
Berfin Kart
Title
:
Social Injustice, Human Rights and “Refugeness”
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
Sosyal Adaletsizlik, İnsan Hakları, Mülteci(lik), Kırılganlık, Çifte Kırılganlık.
Key Words
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Social Injustice, Human Rights, Refugee(ness), Vulnerability, Multiple Vulnerability.
Özet 1 / Abstract 1
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Adaletin ne olduğu ve bir toplumda nasıl gerçekleşebileceği felsefecilerin en eski sorunlarındandır. Kimileri iktidarla, özneyle, biyopolitikayla ilişkisinde adaleti ele alırken, kimi düşünürler de onu insan haklarıyla ilgisinde ele almakta, insan haklarının korunmasıyla adaletin gerçekleşmesi arasındaki bağlantıya işaret etmektedirler. Günümüzün kimi düşünürleri “adalet”i, özellikle de “sosyal adaletsizlik” kavramını “insan hakları” kavramıyla ilişkisinde ele almaktadır. Nasıl ki “adalet” kavramı, bir durum olarak “adaletsizlik”le karşılaşmanın sonucunda ortaya çıkan bir fikir, bir düşünce ise, “insan hakları” kavramının da, “adalet” kavramı gibi mevcut insan hakları ihlallerinin gözlenmesinden yola çıkarak türetilen bir düşünce olduğu görülmektedir. İnsan hakları ihlalleri de “sosyal adaletsizlik” gibi mevcut bir durum, bir olgu olarak karşımıza çıkmaktadır. Ayrıca, “sosyal adaletsizlik”in dolaylı korunan temel haklarla ilgili bir insan hakları sorunu olduğu görülmektedir. Daha çok gelir dağılımındaki adaletsizliğe ilişkin bir sorun olarak algılanan “sosyal adaletsizlik, ekonomik bir sorun olmasının yanında, etik ve politik bir sorundur. Bugün, dünyamızdaki sosyal adaletsizlik ya da küresel adaletsizlik, terör saldırılarının, yoksul ülkelerde karşımıza çıkan iç savaşların ve çoğu zaman bunlarla ilintili olan göçün en temel nedenlerinden biridir. Çığ gibi büyüyen bir küresel bir sorun olarak ‘mülteci krizi’, göz ardı edilemeyecek bir sorun olarak karşımızda durmaktadır. Bugün, dünyamızda giderek artan göç seliyle, yaşadıkları yerleri terk eden insanlarla karşı karşıyayız. Hayatta kalmak ya da daha iyi koşullarda yaşamak için evini yurdunu terk edip kendilerine yeni bir yurt arayanlar, yurtsuzluk, yoksulluk, ayrımcılık, kültürel farklılık gibi nedenlerle, misafir oldukları ülkelerde de kimi etik, politik ve ekonomik sorunlarla karşılaşmaktadırlar. Ülkelerinden ayrılan mülteciler kırılgan gruplar arasında sayılmaktadır. Misafir oldukları ülkelerde, çoğu zaman hiçbir sosyal ve ekonomik hakka sahip olmayan kadın, çocuk, engelli ya da yaşlı mültecilerin ise çoklu kırılganlıkla karşı karşıya kaldıkları görülmektedir. Bu çalışmada, sosyal adaletsizlik kavramından yola çıkılarak, temel ve dolaylı korunan hakların neler oldukları sorularına değinilecek, sosyal adaletsizlikle temel haklar arasındaki bağlantı açıklığa kavuşturulmaya çalışılacaktır. Bununla birlikte, mülteci sorununun neden yalnızca ekonomik ve siyasal bir sorun olmayıp, aynı zamanda etik de bir sorun olduğu sorusuna sosyal adaletsizlik kavramıyla ilgisinde yanıt verilecektir.
Özet 2 / Abstract 2
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The questions what justice is and how the justice in a state or in a person can be realized are two of the perennial questions of philosophy. While some philosophers consider justice in its relation to economics, politics and biopolitics, others deal it in its relation to human rights and emphasize the connection between the protection of human rights and the realization of justice. Some of the contemporary philosophers tackle the concept of justice, especially social justice in connection with human rights. Justice is an idea, a thought derived from cases or facts of injustice, as the human rights is an idea which is derived from the observation of violations of human rights that are state of affairs or facts. Within this context, social injustice is considered as a problem related to all basic rights that can be protected only directly. Although social injustice today is mostly considered as a problem of distribution of income or goods, it is also a philosophical, ethical, and political problem. Today, the global injustice in the world seems to be main reason of terror attacks, civil wars and migrations. It may be considered a problem of human rights for the reason that it gives rise to various violations of human rights degrading human value or dignity. Besides poverty, the ongoing territorial conflicts and civil wars are the main reasons of ‘refugee crisis’. We are facing today a steadily increasing human flow in the World. The refugees are supposed to be among the vulnerable groups. They do not enjoy social and economic rights of the host country, and that causes vulnerability. The women, children, disables, old people in the refugees suffer from multiple vulnerability. In this paper, going from the concept of social injustice, I will try identify which rights are basic rights, which are not, and to demonstrate the relationship between social injustice and human rights. Additionally, I will try to show up that the refugee problem is not only a economical and political problem, but also an ethical and philosophical problem.
Extended Summary
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The social injustice either in one country or in the world constitutes a major challenge for the politics. The social and economic injustice comes at the first rank among the reasons of the terror attacks, of the wars and civil wars and migrations. Social injustice that is not a problem for only poor and developing countries, but also for developed countries causes various problems of human rights from which refugees are affected more than others. The refugee crises that the world encounters today is the most striking fact which demonstrates that the social injustice is also a problem of human rights. Just as the terrorist attacks and civil wars in some countries, also the migration from poor countries towards the developed ones bring along different human right violations. The refugee problem as a global problem is a special human rights problem we confront today all over the world besides the other human right abuses caused by the poverty and discrimination. And problems of refugees who had to leave their countries because of political and economic reasons and the problems of citizens who live in their own countries are not same; and to protect the human dignity and vulnerability in the poor living conditions of refugees is more difficult than others. Beyond being a problem of national income distribution or unequal distribution of wealth, the social injustice is arisen from the fact that the social, economic and political rights –the rights granted– are not guaranteed as to preserve the basic rights of all citizens equally. Thus, social injustice is a problem which leads exploitation, inequality and injustice. Social injustice comes out not because of the unequal distribution of what “exists”, as a popular wisdom, but because of the unequal “distribution” of the penuries (Kuçuradi, 2013a: 16). Although its being a problem that can be cleared without waiting for the development of poor countries, the social injustice is perceived today as a problem related to the income distribution, or the unfair distribution of income. However, the “social injustice appears as a problem related to all basic rights which can be protected only directly” (Kuçuradi, 2013a:12). The problem of social injustice is a problem of demarcation related to the relation of basic rights as nutrition, health and education with the social, economic and cultural rights provided by a state by means of some regulations and organizations. Social injustice emerges when the limits of these rights are not drawn duly by the state for all citizens based on the principle of equality- and when the living conditions provided remain under the level required for the full protection of human value and dignity. Then the problem of social injustice is primarily a problem of demarcation. The bound to be drawn is in relation of basic rights like nutrition, health, education, labor and etc. which are requests of presuppositions which designate the actualization of human potentials; to the social, economic and political rights granted by state and preserved by means of some public establishments. Social injustice is a problem of human rights which arises in case of the fact that this demarcation is not accomplished properly –in other words, according to the principle of equality– for each citizen. In other words, it arises when the given life conditions are below the level of preserving the “human value” or dignity for every one. The social injustice in one country or in the world leads inevitably to the violation of human dignity and value. “ ‘Human dignity’ denotes the awareness of the value of the human being… Single human rights are practical implications of human dignity. They demand from all individuals a kind of treatment for all individuals, which protects the value of the human being” (Kuçuradi, 2013b: 101). The concept of human rights is grounded on human dignity. The concept of “dignity” finds its contemporary meaning in the expression “inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family” which is expressed at the beginning of Universal Declaration of Human Rights. In this first article of the Declaration, it is articulated that the “all members of the human family is equal in respect of dignity and rights”. It can be said that a conception human “dignity” free from the hierarchal aspects and reasons like race, ancestry, gender, health condition etc. and which is supposed to be equal in each human being (Sulmasy, 2012: 17) and inherent/intrinsic in each human person would be more suitable than a hereditary, attributed, denominational, developing, social and relative “dignity” for the human rights. When we think the human dignity as not only a value for grounding the human rights, but also a necessity in providing and preserving the human dignity and rights, the human dignity seems to be a very vulnerable and fragile value. The concept of “vulnerability” has come to the fore since rationality and autonomy are considered as the specific nature of man, and the critique that the concept of man as an autonomous subject which excludes some people , as kids, elders and mentally retarded people from the determination of human dignity. The concept of “vulnerability” is raised as a new basis and is used more frequently in the discussions of human rights as a result of the problems faced in grounding human rights on the human dignity. It is related to the capacity of humanistic pain, being exposure to danger and fencelessness in respect of its relation to the humanity, “indicates a capacity of being open to the world and to any wounding related to something earthly” (Turner, 2006: 28). It is used to express the “sufferer” or “disadvantageous” people, was determined as the “danger of being damaged” (Goodin, 1985: 110). The concept of vulnerability has been more important in context of preserving the basic rights as well. We can observe its gradually increasing appearance and its effect on the decisions of European Court of Human Rights in European Social Committee, Council of Europe and European Union Law. The concept has been usedmore frequently at the decisions of European Court of Human Rights as well. To the concept of vulnerability is referred for the victims of torture and sexual assault, for the people who are mentally and physically disable, children, old people, for refugees who faced discrimination and oppression in their countries sometimes only because of belonging to a different race and ethnic origin from the majority. The refugees who had to leave their country due to civil wars or political and economical reasons are also considered in these vulnerable groups. As the disables, children and old people, mostly the refugees are facing with inhuman living conditions. Like the people both child and disable or both belong to a minority and disable, some refugees as children and disabled ones also face with multiple vulnerability, and to supply them a humane living conditions and to protect their dignity is more difficult than the others. The deprivation of refugees from the social and economic rights from which citizens of the host country enjoy is the main reason for their multiple vulnerability. The multiple vulnerability of refugees who had to leave their own land is as a result of social injustice and civil wars. In this paper, just after tackling the global social injustice and its results, the concepts of “vulnerability” and “human dignity” will be clarified first separately, then in their relations with each other. By this way, it will be tried to clarify whether human dignity involves vulnerability in itself. In this paper, going from the concept of social injustice, I will try identify which rights are basic rights, which are not, and to demonstrate the relationship between social injustice and human rights. Additionally, I will try to Show up that the refugee problem is not only a economical and political problem, but also an ethical and philosophical problem. Given that every person is a potential refugee, we should concentrate more on the ways of securing a humane life to all refugees as all other vulnerable groups of people.
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Sosyal Adaletsizlik, İnsan Hakları ve “Mültecilik” Tam Metin / Full Text
No: 16 - 12/2019 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
Künye
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