İnsan Doğası Tartışmasının Modern Felsefedeki İzleri, No: 17 - 06/2020
Başlık
:
İnsan Doğası Tartışmasının Modern Felsefedeki İzleri
Yazar(lar)
:
Erdal İSBİR
Title
:
İnsan Doğası Tartışmasının Modern Felsefedeki İzleri
Anahtar Kelimeler
:
insan doğası, akıl, inanç, modern felsefe, Aydınlanma
Key Words
:
Human nature, reason, faith, modern philosophy, Enlightenment
Özet 1 / Abstract 1
:
İnsan doğası tartışması “insanın ne olduğu” sorusuysa eğer, bu tartışma kuşkusuz yalnızca modern felsefeye ait değildir. “Ben neyim?” sorusunu sorarak bu tartışmayı, modern felsefe içinde görünür kılan Descartes olmuştur. Kendisini “düşünen bir varlık” olarak kabul eden Descartes, belirli kabulleri kendisinden önceki düşünürlerden miras almış ve kendisinden sonrakilere miras bırakmıştır. Bu inceleme, modern felsefe ve Aydınlanma’nın insan anlayışının bu kabullerini ortaya koymayı amaçlamaktadır. İnsanı “akıl sahibi bir varlık” olarak gören ve “onun yalnızca aklın sözünü dinlediğinde Tanrı’ya yaklaşabileceğini” öğütleyen bu kabuller, teolojiktir. Hıristiyan teolojisinin genel bir tasarımla insan doğasına ilişkin kabulleri, “akıl ile inanç ayrımı” konusunda modern felsefe ve Aydınlanma’nın kökenini ifade eder. Bu çalışmada, bu teolojik kökenlerin ne olduğu ve modern batı düşüncesinin bu kökeni ne ölçüde aşabildiği incelenmektedir. Bu inceleme, “akıl” ve “inanç” ilişkisinin, aslında “insan doğası” tartışmasının ufkunu belirleyen bir ölçüt olduğu kabulüne dayanmakta ve bu dayanağı tanıtlamaya çalışmaktadır. Bu nedenle akıl ve inanç arasındaki ilişki tartışmasının insan doğası tartışmasına dönüşmesinin izi sürülmektedir. Çalışmada modern batı düşüncesinin simge düşünürleri, yalnızca bu bağlamda incelenmektedir. Kartezyen felsefe, İngiliz deneyciliği, Fransız Aydınlanması ve Alman Aydınlanması başlıklarını içeren tartışma, modern batı düşüncesinin “insan sorununu”, teolojik kökenine bağlı olarak “genel bir tasarım” çerçevesinde, nasıl ele aldığını göstermeyi amaçlamaktadır.
Özet 2 / Abstract 2
:
If the debate on human nature is nothing but the question “what human being is” this, without doubt, does not belong to modern philosophy solely. By asking the question “what am I?” it is Descartes who made this debate known in modern philosophy. Descartes who took himself to be “a thinking being”, inherited certain postulates from his predecessors and passed them onto his successors. This study aims to put forward these postulates related to the human understanding of modern philosophy and the Enlightenment. In fact, these postulates which take human being as “a rational being” and prescribe that “only by following the voice of reason, she can get closer to God” are theological. The postulates of Christian theology, in its general representation, express the root of modern philosophy and the Enlightenment with regard to “reason/faith division”. This study investigates what these theological roots are in truth and to what extend modern western philosophy went beyond them. In fact, this study depends on the presumption that the relation between “reason” and “faith” is essentially the criterion that determines the horizon of the debate on “human nature” and attempts to demonstrate this. For this reason, the traces of the transformation of the debate about the relationship between reason and faith into a debate about human nature has been followed. The symbolic names of modern western philosophy has been studied only in this context. This discussion, including the topics of Cartesian philosophy, British empiricism, French and German Enlightenments, attempts to show how modern western philosophy, based on its theological roots, addresses the “human question” in the framework of “a general representation”.
Extended Summary
:
Beginning with subject issue (problem) in the modern western thought is, in fact, a demonstration that the human issue is it’s in foundation as well. What is human? What newness has the history of thinking achieved in terms of attitude of modern western thought towards these questions? Thus, this work attempts to figure out a response to the posed question. First of all, the modern western thought admits human as a creature with reason. Since the modern western thought puts the human reasoning in the central point of subject issue, this illustrates that it has theological acceptances. If it is acknowledged that mind of Enlightenment had been associated with medieval era where it was akin to lighting metaphor; thus, theological origin appears more evidently. This theological root could be summarized as following: Human may only recognize themselves through light of mind; hence, can approach to God. Since the relationship between God and human is moral in which morality is arisen by the subject issue, such morality is dependent on light of mind. Then, what is the source of this light? This question is being responded by Cristian theology where it distinguishes the mind and faith in terms of “natural light” and “supernatural light”. Therefore, the subject issue is being explained by according to relation of mind and faith since the modern western thought considers it as a heritage. In terms of subject issue, the relationship between mind and faith can be seen as a balance scale. For theological thinking of medieval era and Luther, doubtless, faith was always dominant as oppose to mind. Then, how did balance scale act up until Enlightenment era where the mind was dominant as oppose to faith? The response of this question incorporates the answers of questions like “what is human? Or “Who am I?” in which derives from the relationship of mind and faith as measurement. The dogmatic relationship between faith and object was individualized and reduced to mind-based conscience by Luther who attempted to stabilize both sides of long-lasting static scale. Henceforth, such balance state is the condition of modern philosophy in which very much evitable in Cartesian philosophy. The substance problem that is in the heart of Cartesian philosophy was inherited from Christian theological dualism of soul-corporeal in which such dualism problematizes the issue of human essence (self). In this regard, reasoning is the essence of human. Taking “mind” into account in terms of determining what the human is may seem exceeding for theological origin at first. Yet, since the mind incorporates the belief of "knowledge towards itself" to "the competence of God" initially indicate that this origin continues in Cartesian philosophy. Therefore, Cartesian philosophy values the faith when the mind is considered as a general projection. This is only because human, as a creature, possesses reason and the reason is admitted as the result of necessary supernal cognition and “faith in heart”. The dependence of mind to the faith is a process for Leibniz. As much as the human knowledge develops, such dependence will disappear. Consequently, this idea of progression pioneered Enlightenment. The liberation of mind has been acknowledged as the core feature of Enlightenment. Nevertheless, this outcome must be accepted when there is profoundly distinction about faith. In British Enlightenment, the mind is reduced to a subjective competence where the faith is no longer the source of knowledge. This faith is about “supernatural (metaphysical) light” and it is beyond the limits of human mind. Thus, what enlightens the mind is not the light of such faith, but it is "knowledge of one's own experience". This led to emerge of the idea of “progression” since this process is deemed as the separation of mind from faith. Again, this process appears itself in history as the experience of civilization. However, faith is a state of emotion that derives from mind itself. Hence, the mind, since it is liberating itself from faith of supernatural lights, accepts its relationship with belief that is result of sentiment. Subsequently, the mind and faith, as state of emotion, compose the foundation of human nature in Enlightenment process as core components. This outcome is very much evident in human naturalist French Enlightenment. Since French Enlightenment internalizes a Lutheran type of distinction on faith, the mind is identified as natural sentiment and again it ascribes human with this attitude. Since this idea places human in a general projection, the mind turns itself into the sole authority against faith as result. As a response to this, the German Enlightenment's adoption of the Lutheran faith distinction with a traditional stance offers a spiritual feature to the human view. Since the human is accepted as a spiritual being, a debate over human essence arises regarding “life” and “freedom”. This illustrates the question of human nature as a question of living in which it also contains a question of morality. In accordance with the spirit of the age, these problems are figured out by mind. In this regard, especially Kant, however, seems to add a theological dimension to the relationship between reason and faith while reconciling British experimentalism along with rationalist practice. In other words, Kant firmly differentiates theoretical reasoning and practical reasoning. Accordingly, theoretical mind is limited to thinking meanwhile practical mind is constrained to will. Such judgement force derives from a supernatural in which it reconciles these two different capabilities. Although this view of Kant receives a romantic criticism in terms of disrupting the integrity of human nature, it is an critical achievement that he associates the subjective design of the mind with its objective design in terms of the commitment between reason and faith. Finally, there may be revealed for the modern western thought in three basic assumptions about human problems. First of all, human nature is defined by its soul and distinguished among other beings by its reason. Second, the moral engagement of human with the "light of mind" validates the problem of human nature in which turned into a "moral challenge" related to human life. Third, the mind in which determines human life in terms of morality depends on the "supernatural" light of faith. These aforementioned assumptions indicate that the modern philosophy and human understanding of Enlightenment are continuation Christian theology as legacy. These assumptions are entirely the result of theological relationship between reason and faith. The modern western thought attempts to understand human in “general design” due to abovementioned theological origins. Nonetheless, as we have observed in some contemporary thinkers, human nature, primarily, “appears from person to person solely”. From this point of view, whether questioning about human nature requires excluding the importance of “being person” is the main question in which needs to be addressed. In terms of debate over human nature about “being person”, romantic thinkers have underlined the lack of attention on that issue of modern scholars. Here are romantic thinkers about the controversy of human nature, emphasizing "being a person", showing this lack of modern thinkers.
Pdf
:
İnsan Doğası Tartışmasının Modern Felsefedeki İzleri Tam Metin / Full Text
No: 17 - 06/2020 - Tüm Makaleler
Makale Arama
Sayı
Anahtar Kelime, Yazar(lar)
Künye
Sahibi / Owner
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör ve Sorumlu Yazı İşleri Müdürü / Editor
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
Editör Yardımcıları / Assistant Editors
Emrah AKDENİZ
Ömer Faik ANLI
Yayın Kurulu / Editorial Board
Ahmet İNAM
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdal CENGİZ
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Kurtuluş DİNÇER
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Ertuğrul Rufayi TURAN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Sedat YAZICI
(Çankırı Karatekin Üniversitesi)
Emrah Akdeniz
(Van Yüzüncü Yıl Üniversitesi)
Senem KURTAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Seyit COŞKUN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Ömer Faik ANLI
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Danışma Kurulu / Board of Consultants
A.Kadir ÇÜÇEN
(Uludağ Üniversitesi)
Ayhan SOL
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Barış PARKAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Besim DELLALOĞLU
(Sakarya Üniversitesi)
Cemal GÜZEL
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Çetin TÜRKYILMAZ
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Elif ÇIRAKMAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Erdinç SAYAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Güçlü ATEŞOĞLU
(Mimar Sinan Güzel Sanatlar Üniversitesi)
Gülay ÖZDEMİR AKGÜNDÜZ
(Bingöl Üniversitesi)
Güzin YAMANER
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Halil TURAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Harun TEPE
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Hüseyin Gazi TOPDEMİR
(Muğla Üniversitesi)
Kubilay AYSEVENER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
M.Cihan CAMCI
(Akdeniz Üniversitesi)
Melih BAŞARAN
(Galatasaray Üniversitesi)
Nazile KALAYCI
(Hacettepe Üniversitesi)
Nilgün TOKER KILINÇ
(Ege Üniversitesi)
Remzi DEMİR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
R. Levent AYSEVER
(Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi)
Serpil SANCAR
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Yasin CEYLAN
(Orta Doğu Teknik Üniversitesi)
Zeynep DİREK
(Koç Üniversitesi)
M. Murat YÜCEŞAHİN
(Ankara Üniversitesi)
Vefa Saygın ÖĞÜTLE
(Muğla Sıtkı Koçman Üniversitesi)
Sekreterya / Secretariat
Zeynep İrem ÖZATAY
Yazışma Adresi / Mailing Address
Ankara Üniversitesi,
Dil ve Tarih-Coğrafya Fakültesi, Felsefe Bölümü, Ankara

Posseible Düşünme Dergisi hakemli bir dergidir. Yılda iki sayı olmak üzere elektronik ortamda yayınlanır. Posseible Düşünme Dergisi 2016 yılından itibaren The Philosopher's Index tarafından dizinlenmektedir.
ISSN: 2147-1622
editor@posseible.com
www.posseible.com
Tel: 0 312 310 3280 / 1232 – 1233
Posseible Düşünme Dergisi - editor@posseible.com
İşbu sitenin tüm hakları saklıdır. Site içerisindeki dökümanlar izinsiz ve kaynak gösterilmeden kullanılamaz. © 2012
Web Tasarım